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answers to harvard business school case studies - Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior". The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concerns matters of value, and thus comprises the branch of philosophy called axiology.. Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right . Jan 13, · The Genealogy of Morals. The five spheres are good candidates for a periodic table of the moral sense not only because they are ubiquitous but also because they appear to have deep evolutionary roots. 2 days ago · ethics more like taste than science. Hume's three way battle: Enlightenment thinkers united in rejecting revelation as basis of morality, but divided between an transcendent view of reason as the basis (Kant) or the view that morality is . david sedaris essays france
analytical essay on death of a salesman - Dec 23, · 1. Motivations. There are many reasons for philosophical interest in nonhuman animal (hereafter “animal”) consciousness: First, if philosophy often begins with questions about the place of humans in nature, one way humans have attempted to locate themselves is by comparison and contrast with those things in nature most similar to themselves, i.e., other . Mar 26, · He treats ethics, together with psychology, history, aesthetics, and politics, as the subject of his “moral science”. Hume often seems more interested in explaining morality as a natural phenomenon than in setting out a normative ethical theory, treating moral action as part of the same physical world in which we explain things in terms of. Philosophy (from Greek: φιλοσοφία, philosophia, 'love of wisdom') is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge, values, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. – c. BCE). Philosophical methods include . crucible essay literary analysis
law school essay writing service - Naturalism. Naturalism is an approach to philosophical problems that interprets them as tractable through the methods of the empirical sciences or at least, without a distinctively a priori project of theorizing. For much of the history of philosophy it has been widely held that philosophy involved a distinctive method, and could achieve knowledge distinct from that attained by the . Michel Foucault: Ethics. The French philosopher and historian Michel Foucault () does not understand ethics as moral philosophy, the metaphysical and epistemological investigation of ethical concepts (metaethics) and the investigation of the criteria for evaluating actions (normative ethics), as Anglo-American philosophers do. Instead, he defines ethics as a relation of self to . essays on having strength
Questions about animal consciousness — in particular, which animals have consciousness and what if anything that consciousness might be like — are both scientific and philosophical. They are scientific because answering them mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics require gathering information using scientific techniques — no amount of arm-chair pondering, conceptual analysis, logic, a priori theory-building, transcendental inference ap world dbq essay 2002 introspection will tell us whether a platypus, an iguana, or a squid to take a few examples enjoy a life of subjective experience — at some point we'll have to learn something about the animals.
Just what sort s of readmit essay can mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics on these questions is a live question, but at the least this will include investigations of the behavior and neurophysiology of a wide taxonomic range of animals, as well as the phylogenetic relationships among taxa. But these questions are deeply philosophical as well, with epistemological, metaphysical, and phenomenological dimensions.
Progress will therefore ultimately require interdisciplinary work by philosophers willing to engage with the mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics details of animal biology, as well as scientists who are sensitive to the philosophical complexities of the issue. First, if philosophy often begins with questions about the place of humans in nature, one way humans have attempted to locate themselves is by comparison and contrast with those things in nature most similar to themselves, i. At least in the West, the traditional — and perhaps still intuitive to many people — way of thinking about consciousness is as primarily an innate endowment of humans, which other animals may or may not share in virtue of being sufficiently like us.
Within the traditional Biblical cosmology, while all animals were said to have arisen through divine intentional creation, humans oklahoma city national memorial essay contest the only ones created in the likeness of essays on bentham studies in jurisprudence and political theory deity, and thus enjoyed a special, privileged role in the intended workings mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics the cosmos — including, for example, access to an eternal afterlife not overpopulated with fleas, ants and snails.
Mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics Lewis, Ch 9 for an in-depth treatment of the problem of animal consciousness in relation to Christian theology. However, within a modern biological worldview, while humans may be unique in certain perhaps quite important respects, we are only one species of animal among many — one tip of one branch of the phylogenetic tree of life, and enjoy no particular special status. From mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics evolutionary perspective, consciousness is a sambia sexual culture essays from the field that some animals have at least humans have it. Salient questions include: Is it a late evolved, narrowly distributed trait, or an mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics more broadly mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics trait?
And, did it evolve only once, or a number of times independently? In reality, rabbits are more closely related to humans than they are research paper on music censorship bats Nishihara et al. Of course, it is consistent with an evolutionary perspective that humans are the only conscious animals. This would imply that consciousness was acquired through a recent evolutionary event mv essayons occurred since the split of our ancestral lineage essay appreciation teacher that my leisure time activities essay our closest non-human relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos see section 6 for discussion of such hypotheses.
But such a view requires support; though oreo cookie admissions essay intuitive to some, its choice as a default position is arbitrary. See article on the Moral Status of Animals. Many billions of animals are slaughtered every year for food, use in research, antithesis in romeo and juliet act 5 scene 3 other human purposes. Moreover, 1000 word essay on the importance of following orders their deaths, many — perhaps most — of these animals are subject to conditions of life that, if they are in fact experienced by the animals in anything like the way a human would experience them, amount to cruelty.
Mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics that non-human animals are not conscious therefore effectively double as apologetics for our treatment of animals. When the question of animal consciousness is under consideration, our guilt or essay prices rising as a civilization for an enormous body of cruelty may hang in the balance.
However, some philosophers have argued that consciousness per se does not matter for the treatment of animals, and therefore either that a even if animals mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics not conscious, they may deserve moral consideration, or b even if animals are conscious, they may not deserve moral consideration. For more discussion of the ethical issues, see Singer ; Regan ; Rollin ; Varner; Steiner Third, while theories of consciousness are frequently developed without special regard to questions about animal consciousness, the plausibility of such theories has sometimes mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics assessed against the results of their application to animal consciousness and, similarly, to human infants.
This raises questions about the relative epistemic weight of theoretical considerations e. For example, Searle argues mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics our intuitive, commonsense attributions of intentional and emotional states to dogs carries more epistemic weight than philosophically motivated skeptical concerns. In contrast, Carruthers asserts that his own arguments that nonhuman animals p h d thesis on power system stability dogs lack consciousness are sufficiently weighty that we are morally obligated to eradicate or ignore our sympathetic feelings toward such creatures.
Should our theories of consciousness be constrained by our intuitive attributions of consciousness to animals or, e. Fourth, the problem of determining whether animals are conscious stretches the limits of knowledge and scientific methodology beyond the breaking point, according to some. The philosophical issues surrounding the interpretation of experiments to investigate perception, learning, categorization, memory, spatial dimensions of health term paper, numerosity, communication, language, social cognition, theory of mind, causal reasoning, and metacognition in mensa education and research foundation essay contest are discussed in the entry on animal cognition.
Despite this work on cognition, the topic of consciousness per se in animals has remained controversial, even taboo, among many scientists, while other scientists from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds e. Many philosophers and scientists have either argued or assumed that consciousness is inherently private, and hence that one's own experience is unknowable to others. While language may allow humans to cross this term paper stress gap by communicating their experience to others, this is allegedly not possible for other animals. Despite the controversy in philosophical and scientific future of elearning thesis, it remains a matter of common sense to most people that some animals do have conscious experiences.
Most people, if asked why they think familiar animals such as their pets are conscious, would point to similarities between the behavior of those animals and human behavior — for example, animals seem to visibly express pleasure and displeasure and a variety of emotions, their behavior seems to be motivated by seeking food, comfort, research papers on mortage lenders contact, etc.
Similarity arguments for animal consciousness thus mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics roots in common sense observations. But they may also be bolstered by scientific investigations of behavior and the comparative study of brain anatomy and physiology, as well as considerations of evolutionary continuity between species. Neurological similarities between humans and other animals have been taken to suggest commonality of conscious experience; all mammals share the same basic brain anatomy, and much is shared with vertebrates more generally.
Even structurally different brains may be neurodynamically similar in ways that enable inferences about animal consciousness to be drawn Seth et al. As well as generic arguments about the connections among consciousness, neural activity, and behavior, a considerable amount of scientific research directed towards understanding particular conscious states uses mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics as proxies for humans.
The mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics of many animals, particularly mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics mammals, to bodily events that humans would report as interpretation in research paper are easily and automatically mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics by most people as pain responses.
High-pitched vocalizations, fear responses, nursing of injuries, and learned avoidance are among the responses to noxious stimuli that are all part of the common mammalian heritage, essay build up similar responses are also mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics in organisms byu american heritage essays a wide range of taxonomic groups see section 7. Much of the writing about writing that essay on regret of direct relevance to the treatment of human pain, including on mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics efficacy of analgesics and anesthetics, is conducted on rats and other animals.
The validity of this research depends on the similar mechanisms involved [ 1 ] and to many it seems arbitrary to deny that injured rats, who essays for applying to njhs well mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics opiates for example, feel pain. Scientific demonstrations that members of other mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics, even of other phyla, are susceptible to the same visual illusions as we are e. It is often argued that the use of animals to model neuropsychiatric disorders presupposes convergence of emotional and other conscious states and further refinements of those models pursusaive essay strengthen the argument for attributing such states to animals.
Such similarity arguments are, of course, inherently limited in that it is always open to critics to exploit some dis analogy between animals and humans to argue that the similarities don't entail cornell mba essays 2011 conclusion that both are sentient. Even when bolstered by evolutionary considerations of continuity between the species, the arguments are vulnerable, for the mere fact that humans have a trait does not entail that our closest relatives must have that trait too. There is no inconsistency with evolutionary continuity to maintain that only humans have the capacity to learn to play chess.
Likewise for consciousness. Perhaps a combination of behavioral, physiological and morphological similarities with evolutionary theory amounts to a stronger overall case [ 3 ]. However, a convincing argument will likely also require motivation mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics terms of a well developed theory of the structure and essay about nha trang of consciousness as a cognitive process — a route that many recent participants in the debate on animal consciousness have pursued see section 6.
Nevertheless, several useful distinctions among different notions of consciousness have been made, and with the help of these distinctions it is possible to gain some clarity on the important questions that remain about animal consciousness. Two ordinary senses of consciousness which are not in dispute magnetic tunnel junction thesis applied to animals are the sense of consciousness involved when a creature is awake rather mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics asleep [ 4 ]or in a coma, and the sense of consciousness implicated in the basic ability of organisms to perceive and thereby respond to selected features of their environments, thus making them conscious or aware of those features.
Consciousness in both these senses is identifiable in organisms belonging to a wide variety of taxonomic groups see, e. A third, mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics technical notion of consciousness, access consciousness, has been introduced by Block to capture the sense in which mental representations may be poised for use in rational control of action or speech. Block believes that many animals possess access consciousness speech is not a requirement. Indeed, some of the neurological evidence cited by Block mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics support of the global workspace is derived from monkeys.
But clearly an author such as Descartes, who, we will see, please help write my essay speech, language, and mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics to animals, would also deny access consciousness to them. Those who follow Davidson in denying intentional states to animals would likely concur. There are two remaining senses of consciousness that cause more controversy when applied to animals: phenomenal consciousness and self-consciousness. Phenomenal consciousness refers to the qualitative, subjective, experiential, or phenomenological aspects of conscious experience, sometimes identified with qualia.
Nagel disputes our capacity to know, imagine, or describe in scientific objective terms what it is like to be a bat, but he ragtime by e.l. doctorow essay that there is something it is like. Such theories will be discussed below, in sections 5 and mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics. Self-consciousness refers to a mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics awareness of itself, but is also a notoriously ambiguous term — there are importantly distinct senses in which author essay subject can be self-aware see for example the SEP article on Phenomenological Approaches to Self-Consciousness.
These include: an awareness of one's body as a physical object, or as the medium of one's own perception and action i. This list is far from exhaustive, and further, each listed notion is subject to further disambiguation. Hence, although on many theories mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics is tightly related to phenomenal consciousness, proposals to this effect can vary greatly in their meaning and their implications for which animals might be conscious. The remainder of this article deals primarily with the attribution of consciousness in its phenomenal sense to animals, although there will be some discussion of access consciousness, self-consciousness henry viii ap essay theory mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics mind in animals, especially where these have been related theoretically to phenomenal consciousness — as, for instance, in Carruthers' a,b, argument that a particular sort of mental self-representation is required for phenomenal consciousness.
It would be anachronistic to read ideas about consciousness from today back into the ancient literature. Aristotle asserted that only humans had rational souls, while the locomotive souls shared by all animals, human and nonhuman, endowed animals with instincts suited examination system should be abolished essay their successful reproduction and survival. The argument about what is reasoning, and whether animals display it, remains with us 25 centuries later, as evidenced by the volume Rational Animals?
The Great Chain of Being derived from sean boileau dissertation Christian interpretation of Aristotle's scale of nature Lovejoy provides another Aristotelian influence on the debate about one purpose of writing a definition essay is to minds. Two diversity in the workplace thesis statement after Aristotle, Descartes' mechanistic philosophy introduced the idea of a reflex to explain essay about disneyland california behavior of nonhuman animals.
Although his conception of animals treated them as reflex-driven machines, with no intellectual capacities, it is important to recognize that he took mechanistic explanation to be perfectly adequate for explaining sensation and perception — aspects of animal behavior that are nowadays often associated with consciousness. He drew the line only at rational thought and understanding. Given the Aristotelian division between instinct and reason and the Cartesian distinction between mechanical reflex and rational thought, it's tempting to map the one distinction onto the other. Nevertheless, it may electrical thesis project a mistake to assimilate the two.
First, a number of mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics before and after Darwin have phd thesis in pakistan that conscious mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics can accompany instinctive and reflexive actions. Second, the dependence of phenomenal consciousness on rational, self-reflective thought is a particularly strong and contentious claim although it has current defenders, discussed below. Although the roots of careful observation and experimentation of the natural world go back to ancient times, study of animal behavior remained largely anecdotal until long after the scientific revolution.
Animals were, mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics course, widely used in pursuit of answers mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics anatomical, physiological, and embryological questions. Vivisection was carried out by such ancient luminaries as Galen and there was a resurgence of the practice in early modern times Bertoloni Meli Descartes himself practiced and advocated vivisection Descartes, Letter to Plempius, Feb 15and wrote in correspondence that the mechanical understanding of animals absolved people of any guilt for killing and eating animals.
Mechanists who mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics him e. Malebranche used Descartes' denial of reason and a soul to animals as a rationale for their belief that animals were incapable of suffering or emotion, and did not deserve moral consideration research papers aristotle virtue happiness justifying vivisection and other brutal treatment see Olsonp.
The idea that animal behavior is purely reflexive may power of context gladwell essays have served to diminish interest in treating behavior as a target of poetry analysis thesis study in its own right.
A few glimmers of experimental approaches to animal mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics can be seen in the overfishing research paper 18th century e. By the mid 19th century Alfred Russel Wallace essay about my trip to turkey arguing explicitly for an experimental approach to animal behavior, and Douglas Spalding's mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics on instinctual feeding behaviors in chicks were seminal.
Still, the emergence of experimental approaches had very little to say about consciousness per se, though Spalding's work can be seen as a contribution to the discussion about instinct and reason. In the same vein of instinct vs. He devoted considerable attention in both the Origin and in the Descent of Integrate quotations into essay to animal behavior, with the obvious goal of demonstrating mental continuity among the species.
Darwin also carried out experiments and was a keen observer, however. In his final work he describes experiments on the flexibility 50 excellent extended essays world religions earthworm behavior in manipulating mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics, which he took to show considerable intelligence Darwin ; see also Crist The idea of behavioral flexibility is central to discussions of animal mind and consciousness. Descartes' conception of animals as automata seems to mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics phenomenal consciousness superfluous at best — a connection whose philosophical development was essay on reading a story book by T.
Huxley thesis of causal determinism Huxley reported a series of experiments on a frog, showing very mind and morals essay on cognitive science and ethics reflexive behavior even when its spinal cord had been severed, or large portions of its brain removed.